These paragraphs will give you a point of entry to and a point of exit from your essay.


The introduction should be designed to attract the reader's attention and give him an idea of the essay's focus.

Begin with an ATTENTION GRABBER. The attention grabber you use is up to you, but here are some ideas:

Startling information
This information must be true and verifiable, and it doesn't need to be totally new to your readers. It could simply be a pertinent fact that explicitly illustrates the point you wish to make.

An anecdote is a story that illustrates a point. Be sure your anecdote is short, to the point, and relevant to your topic. This can be a very effective opener for your essay, but use it carefully.

Summary Information
A few sentences explaining your topic in general terms can lead the audience gently to your thesis. Each sentence should become gradually more specific, until you reach your thesis.


Don't start what you can't finish!

Remember the ending to every fairy tale you've ever heard? "And then they lived happily ever after". Your speech may not have much in common with a fairy tale, but you can create a similarly perfect ending for it.


A good conclusion plays a key role in determining how your audiences will remember you and your message, summing up your points or providing a final perspective on your topic. All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences which do not need to follow any set formula. Simply review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly) or briefly describe your feelings about the topic. Even an anecdote can end your essay in a useful way.

In the model of a presentation as the smooth flight on the airplane, the conclusion is the landing. The passengers - your audiences - don't want the landing to be sudden or bumpy. They don't want to land in the wrong place.

A cynic might say the conclusion's job is to let the audiences know when to wake up. For non-cynics the conclusion must accomplish the major functions in order to be successful.

Here are the main tips:

The conclusion must provide a summary of your major points.But don't goon forever. Sum up and sit down.

The conclusion must give the audience a feeling that your presentation is complete. People have a psychological need for closure. They want to have a beginning, a middle and an end of the presentation - especially an end. They don't want to be left hanging. People expect a conclusion to sound a certain way - like a conclusion. Use phrases such as "in conclusion", "to conclude" or "in closing". "Turning now to my final point…." This type of statement gives the audiences confidence that you'll reach your final destination.

Here is a simple formula for setting up your final line. Just say: "I have one final thought that I want to leave you with …"

You want to end on a high note. The conclusion should grab their attention. It should possess an emotional appeal that illuminates the compelling nature of your entire presentation.

Ronald Reagan once gave a speech in an unusual time slot - before a luncheon: "Thank you and God bless you. And now the words you've been waiting to hear from me: "Let's eat!" Go for an emotional connection with the audiences members. Make them laugh. Make them think. Make them stand up and applaud!

"Ladies and Gentlemen! Thank you for the time and effort spent on listening to my presentation! "Ladies and Gentlemen! Thank you for your attention!

Here are some common mistakes to avoid. Don't go overtime! If you want to be perceived as a genius, finish five minutes earlier, but don't go longer than expected. Don't say you forgot to mention something. It makes you look disorganized, and the audience worries that you'll make another speech. Don't mumble! Be decisive! Let the audience know where you stand.


It's been said that a speech is like a love affair - Anyone can start it, but it takes a lot of skill to end it well. You must learn to end your speech well enough to keep the audience loving you!!!

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